aesthetic: concerned with beauty or the appreciation of beauty.
age of exploration: The Age of Discovery was a period starting in the early 15th century and continuing to the 17th century. During this period Europeans explored Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania
architecture: the art or practice of designing and constructing buildings.
Atlantic slave trade: The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries.
Botticelli: Italian painter of mythological and religious paintings (1444-1510)
colonialism: the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
colonization: the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies; "the British colonization of America"
Christopher Columbus: Columbus: Italian navigator who "discovered" the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506).
Dante: an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through Hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Donatello: Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466)
Elizabeth I: daughter of George VI who became the Queen of England and Northern Ireland in 1952 on the death of her father (1926-); "Elizabeth II is the head of state in Great Britain"
Erasmus: Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe; although his criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther (1466-1536)
Ferdinand Magellan: Magellan: Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain; he commanded an expedition that was the first to circumnavigate the world (1480-1521)
Florence: A city in Italy, sometimes known as the birthplace of the Renaissance
Galileo Galilee: Galileo: Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
geocentricism: In astronomy, the geocentric model, is a description of the cosmos where Earth is at the orbital center of all celestial bodies.
Johannes Gutenberg: German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
heliocentrism: A sun centered universe
Henry VIII: son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547; his divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and his excommunication 1538, leading to the start of the Reformation in England (1491-1547)
Indian Ocean Trade: Indian Ocean trade served an important role in history, and has been a key factor in East–West exchanges.
Leonardo Da Vinci: Leonardo: Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect; the most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance (1452-1519)
Machiavelli: (Machiavelli's) Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs
magna carta: the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
maritime: connected with the sea, esp. in relation to seafaring commercial or military activity.
Martin Luther: German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546)
Medici family: The House of Medici was a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century
Michelangelo Buonarroti: Florentine sculptor and painter and architect; one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance (1475-1564)
new world: western hemisphere: the hemisphere that includes North America and South America
Nicolaus Copernicus: Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
patron: a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity.
printing press: a machine for printing text or pictures from type or plates.
Raphael: Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
renaissance: the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world; a cultural rebirth from the 14th through the middle of the 17th centuries
Rene Descartes: French philosopher and mathematician; developed dualistic theory of mind and matter; introduced the use of coordinates to locate a point in two or three dimensions (1596-1650)
secular: denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.
Sir Issac Newton: English mathematician and physicist; remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727)
St. Peter's Basilica: St. Peter's Basilica is a Late Renaissance church located within Vatican City. Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and remains one of the largest churches in the world
the Colombian exchange: The Columbian Exchange was a widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable disease, technology and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The Tudor Monarchs: English ruling dynasty (1485-1603), including Henry VII and his descendants Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I.
William Shakespeare: English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)