barbarian: a member of a community or tribe not belonging to one of the great civilizations (Greek, Roman, Christian)
Confucianism: a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius
Daoism: philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
dynasty: a line of hereditary rulers of a country.
ethnocentrism: belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
filial piety: a virtue of respect for one's parents and ancestors.
The Great Wall: Chinese Wall: a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC; it averages 6 meters in width
Han Dynasty: imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time from 206 BC to AD 220) and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy; remembered as one of the great eras of Chinese civilization
Kublai Khan: Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China; he establish the Yuan dynasty and built a great capital on the site of modern Beijing where he received Marco Polo.
Mandate of Heaven: The Mandate of Heaven is a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy predicated on the conduct of the ruler in question
Marco Polo: Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan
Ming Dynasty: the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
Mongol: a native or inhabitant of Mongolia
pagoda: a Hindu or Buddhist temple or sacred building, typically a many-tiered tower, in India and East Asia.
pictographs: a pictorial symbol for a word or phrase.
Qin Dynasty: the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
Qin Shi Huang: the first emperor of a unified China in 221 BC. He ruled until his death in 210 BC at the age of 49
reign: the period during which a sovereign rules.
Shang Dynasty: the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC
silk road: an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles); followed by Marco Polo in the 13th century
Song Dynasty: the imperial dynasty of China from 960 to 1279; noted for art and literature and philosophy
Sun Tzu: Chinese military general, strategist, and philosopher during the Zhou dynasty's Spring and Autumn Period
Tang: Dynasty: the imperial dynasty of China from 618 to 907
Taoism: a Chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu ( fl. 6th century BC), advocating humility and religious piety.
terracotta army: a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China.
yin-yang: In Chinese philosophy, the concept of yin-yang, which is often called "yin and yang", is used to describe how seemingly opposite or contrary forces are interconnected and interdependent in the natural world; and, how they give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Zheng He: Zheng He, formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui-Chinese court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat and fleet admiral, who commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433
Zhou: the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism