allied powers: (in World War I) the powers of the Triple Entente (France, Russia, and Britain) together with the nations allied with them
archduke: a son of the emperor of
armistice: an agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce.
armistice day: the anniversary of the armistice of November 11, 1918, observed since 1954 as Veterans Day in the US.
attrition: the action or process of gradually reducing the strength or effectiveness of someone or something through sustained attack or pressure.
Battle of the Marne: a World War I battle in northwestern France where the Allies defeated the Germans in 1918
Battle of the Somme: a major battle of World War I between the British and the Germans, on the Western Front in northern France July-November 1916. More than a million men on both sides were killed or wounded.
central powers: Refers mainly to the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and others in World War One, but can refer to the 'Triple Alliance' of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1882.
cynicism: an inclination to believe that people are motivated purely by self-interest; skepticism.
doughboys: 'Doughboys' was the nickname given to the American Expeditionary Force that took
part in the later years of WWI
eastern front: the zone of conflict at Germany's eastern boarder
Franz Ferdinand: archduke of Austria and heir apparent to Francis Joseph I; his assassination at Sarajevo triggered the outbreak of World War I (1863-1914)
Gavrilo Princip: a Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914.
imperialism: a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
isolationism: a policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, esp. the political affairs of other countries.
Kaiser Wilhelm: Kaiser of Germany from 1888 to 1918; he was vilified as causing World War I (1859-1941)
league of nations: an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations; although suggested by Woodrow Wilson, the United States never joined and it remained powerless; it was dissolved in 1946 after the United Nations was formed
lusitania: a British luxury liner sunk by a German submarine in the North Atlantic
nationalism: patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
no-man's-land: the terrain between front lines of entrenched armies during WWI
Schlieffin Plan: The Schlieffen Plan was the German General Staff's early 20th-century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war in which the German Empire might find itself fighting on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east
stalemate: a position counting as a draw
Treaty of Versailles: the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
trench warfare: a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.
U-boats: a German submarine used in World War I or World War II.
Verdun: a battle in World War I (1916); in some of the bloodiest fighting in World War I the German offensive was stopped
western front: the zone of conflict at Germany western boarder
Woodrow Wilson: 28th President of the United States, in office from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913
Woodrow Wilson's 14 points: A statement of the war aims of the allies during WWI
Zimmerman Note: The Zimmermann Telegram was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire for Mexico to join the Central Powers, in the event of the United States entering World War I on the side of the Entente Powers. The proposal was intercepted and decoded by British intelligence